Educational technology is a field of study that investigates the process of analyzing, designing, developing, implementing, and evaluating the instructional environment and learning materials in order to improve teaching and learning. It is important to keep in mind that the purpose of educational technology (also referred to as instructional technology) is to improve education. It is therefore important to define the goals and needs of education first and then use all knowledge, including technology, to design the most effective learning environment for students (Kurt, 2015).
With the increase need aimed at solving educational problems and concerns, which might include motivation, discipline, the drop-out rate, school violence, basic skills, critical thinking, and the whole list of educational concerns; there has been an ever increasing tendency to develop innovative solutions to learning difficulties, thus, giving birth to graphic materials in learning.
Definition of Graphic Materials
Graphic materials are materials used for instruction characterized by their vivid nature, can be clearly described and are able to effectively present message in which it is designed for.
According to Achuonye (2004), graphic materials are arts by which we express ideas in lines, pictures, sketches, and diagrams; it includes materials which inculcate facts and ideas clearly and succinctly through a combination of drawing, words and pictures.
Thousands of public and research libraries, museums, archives, local historical societies, corporations, professional associations, and private collectors are custodians of graphic materials. In the past, each has had to devise its own system of documentation because there were no readily available cataloging guidelines. Researchers and staff alike have suffered from having to cope with a multiplicity of methods.
A nationally accepted system of cataloging would benefit both the institution and the researcher. Those embarking on cataloging projects would not have to totally rethink the problem. Communication among institutions with similar holdings would be fostered, and they could in fact profit from some form of shared cataloging. Whether used in a manual or automated form, a standardized set of rules would guide institutions in presenting the researcher with consistent cataloging information. A national union catalog for graphic collections to aid researchers in locating sources could become a reality. Even if not adopted in its entirety, a standard would provide a reference point by which institutions could indicate how their own cataloging practices differ.
Computer technology has made it possible to document huge numbers of items and transmit information electronically. The impact of automation on inventory control and research access could be enormous. Thus it is crucial that custodians of graphic collections think seriously about establishing compatible methods of documentation even if, for many, automation is not right at hand. Because national standards and automated systems for book cataloging have proven so successful, it is worth trying to adapt that format to graphic materials.
This online help provides guidance for cataloging graphic materials within the general structure and theory of the second edition of the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR 2), applied by libraries and automated bibliographic networks in the United States, Canada, Great Britain, and Australia. Library cataloging methods have been reconciled with the principles of archives and museum documentation in an attempt to facilitate the cataloging of graphic materials and, furthermore, to link graphics records with a national system used for books and serials.
Those more familiar with library cataloging will find differences between the documentation of graphic materials and the description of books and other printed or published library materials. For example, original or noncommercial graphic works are generally considered to be unique, though they frequently exist in multiple copies. Even if published, they lack much of the explicit information characterizing books and book-like materials. Furthermore, most collections of graphic items are unique because, as collections, they have never been published.
Book cataloging is based on the transcription of data from the published item (the ” chief source of information”) into the format of catalog record. The concepts of “chief source of information” and “prescribed sources” used in traditional book cataloging has been redefined here for original and historical graphic materials because they often have little or no text to transcribe. The major reason for documenting graphics is to provide the researcher with as complete an identification of the material as possible. This is done by translating the visual information into a verbal description of the material’s physical nature and image content. Authenticating the material and making attributions of responsibility are also activities in documenting graphics. Information must be extracted, interpreted, and extrapolated from the visual content and context of the material, as well as from secondary sources. The cataloger must supply a great deal of information because it is unlikely the catalog user has a copy of or a citation to a specific item or knows the contents of a collection. ( FN 2) In these rules the cataloger is allowed to record such interpretive information but, for the catalog user’s sake, distinctions are made among transcribed, supplied, and conjectural data.
Graphics may be cataloged individually because of their aesthetic value or their historical and iconographical importance. In many instances, however, an individual image may have relatively little value as a work of art or as a single piece of evidence but rather derives meaning and importance from the collection of which it is a part. For this reason, equal attention has been given to item-level and collection-level cataloging.
It should be emphasized that the following rules are most significant for the description and identification of graphic materials felt to be of importance and of some permanent value to the institution’s holdings. Full cataloging may not be feasible for all pictorial works, especially those that can be efficiently arranged in self-indexing files or shelved by creator, subject, or other category.
This online help is not intended to teach someone techniques of identifying, processing, and organizing graphic collections. These rules are based on the assumption that the material has already been examined and identified, that collections have been formed, and the data requisite for the creation of the catalog record have been gathered. The purpose of the rules is to establish conventions for expressing and formatting cataloging data consistently. The punctuation prescribed here follows the requirements of the International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD). Although designed for automation, such punctuation conventions can help maintain consistency in the patterns of data in a manual catalog system